America’s history has been marred with controversial and radical ideologies. Notable figures played a crucial role in fueling controversy through their radical approaches to political and religious processes. William Jennings Bryan was at the center of the entanglement of religion and politics. The links between religion, social capital, and civic engagement reflect the changing religious landscape and its implication for democracy. America’s primary tenet is that a pluralistic society is profoundly given contemporary evangelists’ role. Thus, the coexistence of religious diversity and devotion elicits attention to the effect of politicians’ radical interventions. William Jennings Bryan was notable during the Progressive Era when religious polarization grew. As a political player, he led revolutions against capitalism; hence, many consider William Jennings Bryan a radical figure who gave his support for ordinary citizens against the significant corporations standing for the gold standard.
Politics and Religion
Politics is a necessity of rulers under democratic values. The lecture notes support the principles of sacred and secular laws that regulated economics, religion, and politics in 20th-century America. Although Bryan helped the economic progress, he fought the potentially corrupt businesses that used the poor laborers and farmers for selfish gains. At the time of spearheading Christian moralism, Bryan took advantage of the Democratic Convention to rise to the political scenes in his famous Cross of Gold speech. The radical approach that Bryan took to politics depended on the understanding that the state plays a role in serving the interest of politicians. Therefore, Bryan became radical and attempted to incite the masses against the state and political parties. He applied religious fundamentalism in his campaign selectively. As a result, Bryan Jennings was neutral against the wars instead of taking a stand that condemned such conflicts. However, he wanted to conduct peace crusades in all parts of Europe.
Society is a congregation of families under the guidelines of Christian ethics. The lecture notes indicate that Bryan took advantage of the economic situation when inflation affected the country by championing reforms. The tension between the Democrats and the Republicans under the McKinley policies allowed Bryan to campaign to ensure that labor unions spearhead the collective bargaining power for workers’ rights (U.S History II para 5). As a result, Bryan wanted companies to revoke their restrictions on immigrants. William Jennings Bryan won the nomination and made a speech that is indisputably the best in the political history of the U.S.
Cross of Gold
William Jennings Bryan rallied for the free silver. During the 1896 Democratic Convention, he criticized capitalism that was growing under the gold standard (History para 6). His beliefs focused on the principles of religion that justice and equality are primary factors that everyone should embrace. Bryan traveled across the county, addressing millions of people on the importance of populists’ political ideologies of free silver. Therefore the radical brand of populism pitted him against the wealthy business elites and Wall Street bankers.
Bryan practiced the politics of gold when the economic depression destroyed livelihoods and made ordinary people despair. He believed in the power of religion and used it to win the elections to the House of Representatives. Throughout his political engagement, Bryan focused his energy on the presidential campaign under the platform that his tenure would prevent the government from defrauding laborers and farmers against corrupt multinationals and other capitalistic corporations (History para 6). The national taking tour that he launched convinced millions of people that political players could alleviate farmers’ debts. However, the Republicans championed the gold standard to fight bimetallism. As a result, Brayan persuaded President Wilson to abolish the loans that American Bankers were advancing to the government. While the move outraged his allies, he refused to support the embargo on exporting war artilleries (Levine 10). At the time, the high unemployment rate and increasing poverty caused economic losses through strikes. As a result, farmers suffered the impact of taxation because the policy forced them to import manufactured goods.
Progressive populism was the style of politics that Bryan performed. He reinvented the Democratic Party to combine the defense of American Capitalism and the oppression of African Americans (Jones para 8). The reformists’ policies that appealed to the hopes of the oppressed middle class gave Bryan the platform to capture mass discontent. Therefore, the revolutionary lines of his ideologies were to use religion to spearhead the populist movement. Bryan initiated the reactionary progress that pitted the poor farmers and the capitalists’ corporations in the U.S. Much of Bryan’s political argument used populist appeals. Although he had support from both left and right-wing political movements, he relied on the power of Christian ethics to appeal to the critics of the existing social injustices (Jones para 8). Thus, Bryan advocated that his Democratic political perspectives adopt a populist Christian morality using the biblical scriptures (Jones para 11). Therefore, religious tenets took the stage in all his rallies and speeches.
Bryan appealed to his compatriots by urging them to stand against the common enemy. During the Cross of Gold Speech, Bryan opposed any law that would be undemocratic and immoral. As a result, he opposed American imperialism, which supported anti-trust laws, women’s suffrage, graded income tax, and alcohol prohibition (History para 7). Although he lost the election, he continued influencing politics through his religious beliefs. The decision reflects the ideals of progressive politics that aim at pacifism.
Bryan’s evangelism emerged as the rightward trajectory. Embracing the fundamental religious perspective revealed the Christians’ belief in his fight for social order and against the capitalist movement (Jones para 8). Thus, people realized the deliberate departure from any scientific insights based on the possibility of eroding the religious faith. Bryan feared that using science would create chaos among the urban poorer.
Bryan enunciated the dream of peace in 1913. Most of his campaign messages were against imperialism, solidifying and strengthening the Christian view of hope (Levine 5). When accepting the Democratic presidential nomination, Bryan alluded to ensuring that he established an American society that would champion the moral factors of the progressing world. According to Levine, Bryan maintained that the U.S would be neutral in matters of war (10). The lecture notes emphasize the focus on peace. Thus, aspects of defensive war are radical elements that relied on the church to offer direction. Therefore, Bryan proposed a peace treaty plan to end the Russo-Japanese war by appealing to all parties to be kind to each other and involve the religious tenet of moral values (Levine 7). Kazin and Knoff illustrate the extent to which Bryan’s populist and progressive ideologies captured his inspiration for democratic reforms during the 20th century (para 3). For this reason, Bryan pointed to the picture of a personified social gospel that used the Christian approach to confront inequality and social justice issues.
Bryan reinvented the Democratic Party to champion the rights of the people. Therefore, he could adapt the party to the masses’ changing moods. According to Jones, Christian ethics enabled Bryan to influence the party and deflect the social discontent to the capitalist system (para 25). At the same time, Democrats and Republicans responded to the struggles of the working class. Therefore, Bryan’s entry into active politics considers industrial and agricultural discontent. At the time, the industrial workers were facing distress because of the low prices and the exploitation of merchants, moneylenders, and railroads. As a result, Bryan adapted himself to the populist movement, where he endorsed Weaver against the Democratic nominee from Cleveland.
Bryan resigned from politics to focus on the peace crusade. Although there were speculations that Bryan targeted America and Europe, the goal of the peace crusade emerged even when he served as the Secretary of the State (Levine 37). The resignation increased anxiety in Congress, which considered the effectiveness of Bryn’s involvement in peace negotiations. The Lecture Notes indicated were no amendments to religious restriction because there was no state church. Bryan was passionate about peace and used Christian values to pressure the state to accept the peace movement. The political space in the U.S builds its programs on principles of Christian ideologies. These evolved from symbols, doctrines, institutions, and class capitalism to underscore the need for social justice.
Bryan used the political blueprint to advocate for politics that served the poor. The primary quest for the Democratic political parties reflected the fundamental purpose of respecting the voice of God. Hostile newspapers such as the Chicago Tribute referred to Bryan as “the expression of the normal American citizens” (Levine 218). He became a man of the people because of how passionately he advocated for the needs of the poor. Therefore, Bryan established a relationship with the population through a philosophy that reflected the tenets of Christian ethics.
Bryan fought for political manifestos that conceptualized democratic ideology. In comparison, the Republicans would retreat to reconsider the capitalistic approach to setting agendas and determining the goals of their political process. However, the religious pluralism that Bryan emphasizes provides a fundamental conceptualization of a society anchored on justice. The liberal views that Bryan manifested reflect the political ideologies that multiple centers of power should make policies that lessen the sufferings of the poor in society. From the lecture notes, the arguments between evangelicals and Pentecostals created the ideology that democracy and Christianity should serve the human interest. For instance, more virtue emerges when servicing people (Levine 219). Overall, Bryan could speak about the virtuous masses.
The Legacy of Williams Jennings Bryan
Bryan submitted to the issues of the American people. Drawing from the tenets of the Democrats and Republican Parties, their political approaches are inclined to ascend to power based on the ability to serve the masses. However, the majority rule in the political philosophy slowed Bryan’s efforts to promote and oppose reforms depending on what he deemed fit (Levin 224). Bryan advocated for pluralism in religious and political society. The political parties would advance effective democracy if they understood societal power. Thus, Bryan’s radical political approach believed in the democratic space that shared societal power by decentralizing resources. For this reason, the political parties embraced different groups of people, such as religious men and women, business people, and professionals.
Bryan championed the doctrine of majority rule with vehemence. As a result, he continued to advocate for the referendum in all states, municipalities, and nations. For this reason, Bryan Jenning ensured that his attack on the senate rules about the plutocracy pitted him against the establishment (Levine 225). He believed that pluralism without religious tenets advocated for capitalism. The idea of a free-market economy forces political parties to compete for voters on the pretext of sovereignty. Bryan’s rallying call was to denounce the election establishment relationship between voters and the political parties. Notably, he wanted the Democratic Party to champion social justice through units that influence the public to lobby the political players and businesses to serve people’s interests.
Bryan was one of the notable figures in U.S. political history. His fiery condensation of financial interests and advocating for populist issues made him use religion as the benchmark for serving people. Bryan was a populist candidate in the political space, making him embrace the movement that moved from the radical people’s party to the Democratic Party. The issues that Bryan advocated for seem to have dislodged the democratic gains. During the agrarian revolution, he appealed to the urban poor and farmers. His campaign message fought imperialism and strengthened the religious view that human value was more important than political and market interests. Therefore, Bryan focused on Christian moralism, remained neutral in wars, and wanted to carry his peace message across America and Europe. Thus, in most of his speeches, Bryan appealed to his fellow citizens by rallying them to stand against the common enemy. Bryan opposed any immoral and undemocratic law during the Cross of Gold speech.
“History.” William Jennings Bryan, 2022. https://www.history.com/topics/us-politics/william-jennings-bryan. Accessed 16 Mar. 2022.
“U.S History II.” William Jennings Bryan and the Politics of Gold. 2022. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ushistory2ay/chapter/william-jennings-bryan-and-the-politics-of-gold-2/. Accessed 16 Mar. 2022.
Jones, Shannon. William Jennings Bryan and the rise and decline of the Progressive Era 2006. https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2006/08/brya-a11.html Accessed 16 Mar. 2022.
Levine, Lawrence. Defender of the Faith: William Jennings Bryan, the Last Decade, 1915-1925 Harvard University Press, 1987
Kazin, Michael and Knopf, Alfred. A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan. New York