Conduct an Internet search for the Static 99 assessment.
Complete the Static 99 assessment for either Jerry or Sal.
Determine the selected offender’s level of risk based on his assessment results.
(1)Summarize the case scenario you chose.
(2)Summarize the results of the Static 99 assessment for the offender in the case scenario you chose.
(3)Describe appropriate treatment options based on the sex offender’s risk level. (4)Explain the primary cognitive behavioral components associated with those treatment options.
(5)Describe the recidivism rates for offenders who have committed crimes similar to this offender.
(6)Describe the treatments that have helped reduce recidivism.
Treatment Based on Risk
Summary Case Scenario
The selected case scenario entails an issue of a contact-sex offence committed by Sal against Maria. Notably, Sal, who was responsible for babysitting his 4-year-old cousin, Maria, molested the latter, by enticing her to participate in a game. Sal would “touch” Maria if she lost in the game, and warned her against disclosing the action to her mother. However, Maria eventually revealed the incidents of molestation to her teacher, after which Sal was arrested and placed under psychological rehabilitation treatment at the prison. In his defense, Sal argued that he only touched the victim and that the latter enjoyed the game. Considering Sal’s prior offence and the need to prevent him from reoffending after leaving the prison, a static 99 assessment is used to evaluate his risk level, and a cognitive-behavioral treatment option, which has proven effective in reducing recidivism, is recommended for the offender.
Results of the Static 99 Assessment for Sal
The results of the Static 99 Assessment reveals that Sal has an average risk of recidivism. The total score for the individual risk factors totals to 1, which, according to the evidence-based risk categories for Static-99R, reflects an average risk of recidivism (Hanson, Babchishin, Helmus, Thornton & Phenxi, 2016). Notably, Sal’s score in the demographic information is 1, as he is aged between the age of 18 to 34.9 years, an age bracket that is likely to be attributed to high rates of recidivism. However, Sal scored “0” on both the criminal history and victim characteristics. Sal’s category of risk implies that upon release from the rehabilitation center, he has a 3-percent likelihood of being involved in a similar sexual offence after three years.
Appropriate Treatment Options
Based on results from the Static 99R assessment, it is evident that Sal has an average risk of recidivism; thus, he must receive treatment to lower his probability of reoffending. As the literature suggests, treatment can only be effective if it is matched with the risk level of an offender (Yates, 2013). Therefore, given that Sal has an average risk of reoffending, he should be subjected to cognitive-behavioral treatment. Notably, scholars view cognitive behavioral treatment option as a treatment that involves “changing attitudes, challenging cognitive distortions, addressing general self-regulation skills such as problem-solving, improving sexual, intimate, and social relationships, managing affective states, developing adaptive cognitive processes, and addressing sexual self-regulation, such as reducing deviant sexual arousal” (Yates, 2013, p.90). In this context, the treatment option aims at changing cognitive distortions exhibited by Sal regarding his sexual offence. Notably, Sal justifies the crime by trivializing his actions, “it was just touching”. Such a distorted perception raises the chances of a similar incident happening. Thus, a cognitive-behavioral treatment option should be used to change the offender’s view of his offence and minimize his probability of reoffending.
An alternative treatment option that suits the offender’s risk level is the good lives model. This treatment model focuses on assisting individuals in attaining essential and valued life goals in a pro-social and non-harmful way (Yates, 2013). Notably, the primary assumption of the model is that sexual offences arise from maladaptive strategies to fulfil life goals. For example, Sal likely desires intimacy, but because of his emotional identification with Maria, he turns to the latter to meet the need. The use of the good lives treatment model may help reduce the chances of Sal reoffending by equipping him with knowledge on how to fulfill his sexual pleasure without engaging young children such as Maria.
Cognitive Behavioral Components Associated with the Treatment Options
The primary cognitive behavioral component associated with the proposed treatment options is the schema. As the literature suggests, schemas are “cognitive structures that function to process, organize, and evaluate incoming information, direct cognitive activity, and influence information processing” (Yates, 2013, p.91). In this context, the treatment options target the schemas possessed by sex offenders and attempt to change them, to reduce recidivism. For example, in Sal’s scenario, the cognitive-behavioral treatment option may target the schemas that the offender may have, such as the belief that children can easily consent to sexual activity (Yates, 2013). Similarly, the good lives model may target the schema that the offender may have towards molestation, such as the belief that touching a child is not a form of molestation. Therefore, the primary cognitive component in the treatment options that would be identified and altered in Sal’s scenario is the schema.
Recidivism Rates for Offenders
As noted, Sal’s sexual-offence falls in the category of average risk in the Static 99 assessment. Based on growing literature, the recidivism rates for offenders who have committed similar contact-sexual crimes is 3% percent after three years (Przybylski, 2015). This rate implies that the probability of reoffending is relatively low, and to greater extents, it can be mitigated if appropriate treatment options are established for the offender.
Treatments that Helped Reduce Recidivism
An assessment of prior research in the field of sexual offences and recidivism reveals that cognitive behavioral treatment helped reduce reoffending among individuals. For example, a study program in Canadian prison by Oliver et al. that utilized the cognitive behavioral treatment approach showed a significant reduction of recidivism among treated offenders, 16.9 percent after five years, compared to 24.5 percent among untreated offenders (cited by Przybylski, 2015). These findings confirm that cognitive behavioral treatment has the potential to reduce recidivism among sexual offenders.
Hanson, R.K., Babchishin, K.M., Helmus, L.M., Thornton, D., & Phenix, A. (2016). Communicating the results of criterion references prediction measures: Risk categories for the static-99R and Static-2002R sexual offender risk assessment tools. Psychological Assessment. Retrieved from http://saratso.org/pdf/Hanson_et_al_2016_October_Static_risk_categories_Advance_Online_10_16.pdf
Przybylski, R. (2015). The effectiveness of treatment for adult sexual offenders. Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative. Retrieved from https://smart.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh231/files/media/document/theeffectivenessoftreatmentforadultsexualoffenders.pdf
Yates, P.M. (2013). Treatment of sexual offenders: Research, best practices, and emerging models. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(3-4), 89-95. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017917.pdf