Using information from your required readings, complete the “Theories of Development Chart.” For each of the theories listed on the chart, provide a brief description of the theory, the associated age group or stages of development, and an example of a classroom application or approach informed by the theory. Be sure to cite your sources in the reference column. Select a theory-based approach or teaching practice from your chart that you find particularly interesting. Describe how this practice or approach would vary across stages of development and how it could be utilized for students with exceptionalities.
Theories of Development
|Theory||Brief Description of Theory||Associated Age Group or Stages of Development||Example of a Classroom Application or Approach||References|
|Maturational Theory||It asserts that here are certain stages of development that every child goes through with the difference of the rate of growth being the only varying factor. Variations in their development is affected by genes and the environmental factors.||Eighteen months to seventeen years.||The theory would be used to explain the difference between infancy which is characterized by tantrums and confidence experienced from years 5 to 8.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Constructivist Theory||Development is constructed by the individual through experiences and learning processes.||Childhood||Children have different understanding and appreciation of being disciplined in class partly from the learning processes and experiences they get in different environments.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Sociocultural Theory||The development and learning process amongst children is through interaction and gaining knowledge from the more knowledgeable members of the society. Social learning is important and it recedes the actual development.||Throughout Childhood stage.||A child progressive parents or guardians would depict a higher level of development as opposed to one with non-progressive or absent parents.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Ecological Theory||The environment and the interactions that a child goes through while developing become more complex with time and they have an impact on their learning experiences.||Childhood and adolescence stages.||A child gets to learn more and understand complex relationships and concepts about life as they grow up.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Psychosocial Theory||Social interaction and conflicts that are faced throughout an individual’s life are responsible for their development. Developmental conflict is particularly impactful on growth and functionality.||The theory explores development through all stages of a person’s life from birth to adulthood which Erikson argued, still experienced development.||Conflicts in relationships and morality punctuate a child’s growth and shapes their development.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Behaviorist Theory||The development of children is based on how the environmental interaction impacts their behavior. Behavior is then used to provide for terms of determining development through observable changes. Conditioning is an essential component since factors such as reinforcement, stimuli, punishments, and rewards are responsible for shaping development.||Throughout the childhood stage as the child undergoes the process of conditioning.||Behavior in classrooms on how to handle conflicts can be shaped by conditioning children to approach situations calmly and involve grown-ups where necessary.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Multiple Intelligence Theory||Human beings have different forms of intelligence that represent varying ways through which children develop. The theory explains why children have different preferences when it comes to learning.||Childhood to adulthood as individuals go through different experiences from which they learn in a variety of ways based on their capabilities.||A child with a high level of interpersonal intelligence would learn through their development stages through interaction with different positively impactful people.||(Follari, 2015).|
|Self-Actualization Theory||A child’s behavior and conduct is not solely dependent on their natural demeanor but by influences that are all across their life process. Development needs of a child are based on the basic human needs that they possess according to the Maslow’s pyramid of hierarchy. The process of development sees the physiological needs being met first followed by the safety needs. The relationship needs are met next with the self-actualization needs being the ultimate needs. Meeting the goals in the environment provides for the process of growth and development.||Throughout a person’s stages of development in their life.||A child is bound to go through their early ages of development better from stable and healthy relationships with their parents and other members of the society involved.||(Follari, 2015).|
Follari, L. (2015). Foundations and best practices in early childhood education: History, theories, and approaches to learning. Pearson Higher Education AU.