Identify and CHOOSE ONE of the following countries from the former Yugoslavia:
-Bosnia & Hercogovinia (https://www.sarajevotimes.com/)
-Northern Macedonia (https://balkaninsight.com/macedonia-home/)
For each of the countries above, one of the main english language newspapers is shown for that country via the hyperlink.
Here is the assignment:
1.You are going to select 4 articles from ONE of the news website that take place over the past 60 days that in some way deal with that countries relationship with Europe or the EU.
- You are going to conduct an analysis of EACH article using the readings you have done for class (attached). Here is what I want exactly:
– You will identify a theory or concept from the a specific reading (attached) that you feel is useful in explaining the specific bias, preference, fact source, perspective etc..that is in the article.
– You can choose a minimum of two different readings and you must choose a different theory or concept in conducting your analysis.
– Your analysis for each article should be about 2 pages double-spaced. That analysis should consist of a brief explanation in your own words of the theory or concept and a critical analysis of the text that looks at AT LEAST THREE issues: TEXT, CONTEXT and BACKGROUND. Text relates to analysis of specific phrases or words. Context relates to analysis of the specific broader issue within the article and background refers to the historical/social/cultural background that is behind that article.
- You will a separate analysis for each of the 4 articles. This complete work should be about 8 pages. Please reference the exact articles you are analyzing as well as the exact pages from the readings.
International Communication Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Newspaper Article 1 Cessation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The newspaper article “Serbian and Croatian Politicians are urgently working to break up BiH” by Y.Z is the latest edition of Sarajevo Times to address the extent to which Serbian and Croatian lawmakers are seeking a deal to break from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The newspaper article showcase the relationship that Bosnia and Herzegovina are having with their counterparts in Europe. While the European Union registered the concerns of Serbia and Croatia, the newspaper article quotes a German Newspaper, Taz, on the plans to cease the relationship with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The basis of the new plans indicates the secession efforts based on the national interests of the different players. For this reason, the article captures the length to which the Croatian nationalists have been working to destabilize Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result, their leaders have complained about the Croatian oppression in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Issues of nationalism and imperialism emerge as leading forces in the secessions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The rise of the intra-European nationalism movement indicates that different interests contribute to the country breaking into two (Anderson, p.34). Therefore, the newspaper article contains the bias wherein the whole European Union, only Serbia, and Croatia, have the interests of leading efforts for Bosnia and Herzegovina to break off. For this reason, the article is credible since it quotes the authority of the German newspaper Tageszeitung o describes the foundational issues of concern. The Sarajevo teahouse that came out as Franz and Sophie recreate the memories of World War I, where assistants eliminated the Australian ruler and his wife in 1914 (Y.K, para 2). The historical environment connects to the perspectives of nationalism and imperialism that map movements in the European dynasties. All these created political difficulties for several years.
The authority of the newspaper article rests on its coverage of important events that took place in history. Dodik played a critical role after the imposition of Inzko on the Law on the Ban of Genocide Deal. Thus, this is the driving force that the author focuses on in the article. Inzko focused on creating a force that would weaken nationalist ideologies. As a result, he denied crimes that the Serbs committed and introduced the reconciliation process. Accordingly, the Serbian nationalists opposed reconciliation efforts because they believed war crimes offenders needed to face justice. The matter ended up in the Hague Tribunal (Y.K, para 4). From the German journalists, the military occupation in the region is the main reason for cessation motives. However, it emerges that people in entire Europe continue to prevent European Union from enlarging. Therefore, they support nationalist forces for everybody from Serbia, North Macedonia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thus, Angela Merkel and other leaders showcased efforts to represent the democratic opposition and remind the Serbians and the Croatians of the need for regional integration.
The behavior of the international community resonates with the tenets that situating official nationalism requires collaboration between various countries in the region. Thus, popular nationalist movements that have proliferated in Europe since the 1820s model a case for nationalism based on culture and history (Anderson, p.89). Based on this foundation, the newspaper indicates that since democratic movements are slowly forming in all parts of the Balkans, most countries in the European Union cannot tolerate the corrupt kleptocrats and nationalist-oriented leaders. Bosnia and Herzegovina have highly corrupt territories, which weaken the nationalist philosophy.
Article 2: Sweden Bans Citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sweden banned citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina from traveling to its territory. The Sarajevo Times reported in its B.H. On 3 October 2021, all Bosnia and Herzegovina citizens accept for persons with the permanent resident permit or those with extreme urgent needs to travel shall not travel to Sweden. The announcement expresses the general level of relationship that Sweden has with Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the issue of the Corona virus occupied the reasons for the ban, the Swedish government, through its embassy, announced that the decision following the latest recommendations from the Council of European Union to its members after changes in the Bosnia and Herzegovina’s epidemiological situation (Y.K para 3). However, the logical conclusion about the ban is that Sweden is imposition restrictions to prevent the spread of the Corona virus in its territory. As a result, citizens of Moldavia, Kuwait, Chile, and Rwanda join Bosnia and Herzegovina as people that Sweden restricts from traveling to its territory.
The focus of the newspaper article is to illustrate the correct position of Bosnia and Herzegovina relationships with its counterparts in the region. The fundamental transformation of Marxism indicates the historical significance of travel bans. Sweden indicates how it looks at Bosnia and Herzegovina regarding its cooperation (Anderson, p.1). With Coronavirus being the scapegoats, Sweden needs Bosnia and Herzegovina to serve its interests. Most of the countries on the Sweden ban list are from outside the European Union. The Marxist theoretical perspective implies that the intervention of a state works according to the elements of social imperialism.
The European Union is a regional entity that constitutes the Western Balkans’ efforts. Since the European Union is the primary trading partner for Bosnia and Herzegovina, the ban by Sweden is a history of the Bosnian’s infringement of human rights. Although the ban lasts until 31 October 2021, it will have huge implications on the economic and social development of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The newspaper article represents bias where the reporter assumes that Bosnia and Herzegovina lacks an effective coronavirus mitigation strategy. By joining the country to a list of others from Latin America and Africa, the author reveals that Sweden suspects Bosnia and Herzegovina to have less capacity to protect its partners’ health interests in the European Union. The article suggests that Sweden’s ban on citizens from Bosnia and Herzegovina shows a lack of nationalism. The condescension concludes that modern developmental history emphasizes states’ ability to collaborate and assemble resources to fight the corona virus, a common enemy. However, the Marxism tenets have allowed Bosnia and Herzegovina to suffer the deep-rooted dilemma of helplessness thrust (Anderson, p.5). The growth of Sweden depends on its trade relations with Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result, tourism is a significant source of foreign exchange in the European Union. Therefore, banning the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina weakens the leading development of tourism infrastructure in line with the knowledge economies. While the article emphasizes promoting public health, it capitalizes on the Marxist tendency to weaken the cultural and historical dimensions of nationalism. For this reason, the article is sensational and can breed animosity between Sweden and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The audience can easily take the paper out of context and imagine that Sweden blocked diversity and regional integration efforts. Alternatively, the steps paint Bosnia and Herzegovina as a country without the desire to promote the welfare of the European Union.
Article Three: Pandora Papers
The newspaper article paints Bosnia and Herzegovina as a tax haven. The author indicates that companies from Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as Energoinvest, are among the six companies featured in the Pandora papers campaign. However, the report points to how the public in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other members of the European Union consider its seriousness in investigating the economic issues. According to the newspaper, authorities in the country promised to launch an investigation without much optimism from the public. As a result, the revelation by the Sarajevo Times raises the critical question of how possible is it that not even one political appeared in the Pandora Papers revelations. Although Pandora’s papers are the most significant data leak in the history of the European Union, they implicated politicians from other countries.
The foundation of the European Union’s economic wellness originates from anti-corruption campaigns. According to the data leak, the Prime Minister of Czech Andrej Babis, Tony Blair, and other leaders have dedicated their political careers to fighting tax evasions and havens. However, it is surprising that Bosnia and Herzegovina are not outside the Pandora box. Although most politicians in the country are not featuring on the list, six companies are implicated. Therefore, the article raises the critical question of the role of politicians in over sighting and creating laws that prevent the illegality of tax evasion and tax haves. For this reason, given that companies that operate in Bosnia and Herzegovina have contributed to tax evasion crimes, there is a likelihood that the country has a relaxed legal apparatus that prevents it from enforcing the culture of honesty and integrity in business operations.
The Marxist tenet indicates a theoretical perspective in understanding the pretense of nationalism. Therefore, Energoinvest paid more than 3.6 million euros to a small consulting firm in the United Arabs Emirates (Y.K, para 7). Although the Ministry of Security of Bosnia and Herzegovina addresses the issue, the public lacks faith that individual directors of the companies will not compromise the investigations touching on the organized crimes. From the perspective of Marxism, the central problem of nationalism is the shrunken imaging of collaboration from the political elite leaders to enhance mechanisms of organized crimes (Anderson, p.7). Although Bosnia and Herzegovina are not immune to money laundering and other corrupt deals, the security system faces the chance of reaching a higher level of competency and cooperation with other European Union players. The bias in the article lies in the author drawing data from inference to speculate allegations without questioning the accuracy of the claims. The newspaper article does not show proof of additional research to ascertain the remaining companies from the six that Pandora Papers named.
Bosnia and Herzegovina proved to have an environment that flourishes the operation of companies with dubious histories. Efforts by the organization to put dirty money into the legal flow of the economy are the primary concern that pits Bosnia and Herzegovina from other countries in the European Union. Insider claims, according to the newspaper, that Bosnia and Herzegovina are suitable for tax evasion. It allows unscrupulous business people to inject illegal money into the country’s legal channels. As such, no other country in the European Union has such a business environment. The Bosnia and Herzegovina government utilizes the Marxist view of nationalism to pretend to have heightened its efforts to prevent corruption and money laundering through tax havens.
Article Four: Visit of European Union’s President
The article covers a story about the surprise visit of the European Union’s President to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The basis of the visit elaborates on the geopolitical significance that Bosnia and Herzegovina have in the European Union. Ursula von der Leysin ended her tour with a meeting with members of the presidency. Part of the European Union’s plans was to attend the ceremonial opening of the Svilj Bridge and the border cross. The image of Bosnia and Herzegovina emerge as a regional partner in the movement of goods, people, and services across its neighbors.
Cultural nationalism is critical in helping map the visit of Ursula to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The modern culture of nationalism exists to allow people in the European Union to celebrate their historical ties (Anderson, p.9). Therefore, the newspaper implied that the visit of the European Union’s President recognized the complex nationalism that aligns a country to the rest in the region depending on their interests and self-consuls political ideologies. The cultural systems that have presented Bosnia and Herzegovina’s history reveal a political facet that underlie the need for collaboration and interaction.
The article’s bias stems from how it reveals the relationship Bosnia and Herzegovina have with other countries in the European Union. The address of the E.U. president to Bosnia and Herzegovina came after the visits to Serbia, Albania, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Therefore, there is a symbolic message that emerges from this visit. The article fails to package the meaning and implication of Ursula’s visit apart from her focus on calling on the Western Balkans to join the European Union. The political move resonates with the expansion approach. According to Anderson, the liberal political processes seek to misrepresent regional blocs’ picture and structure (p.25). Therefore, the newspaper reiterates the need for Bosnia and Herzegovina and all those that the European Union’s President visited to consolidate the cultural and dynastic tendencies to join the membership of the regional trading bloc.
Through the announcement the President of the European Commission made to the European Parliament, the focus is to rally behind the countries in the Western Balkan and reiterate their commitment to the accession process. The message is that the future of Europe lies in collaboration and regional integration. Thus, the newspaper quotes the commission’s President as a political Marxist who sought to leave a legacy of political unity. The basis for her reason is that investing in the future of Western Balkans is critical to investing in the future of the European Union. The clarion call of the European Commission’s President is to remind the European Union that the future lies in strengthening the region by seeking the support of all countries. The support would also extend to resolving to achieve the new Investment and Economic Plan. The decision demonstrates the commitment for the European Union to showcase its diversity and heritage to the rest of the world in a political and economic approach. This will increase the cultural and economic Marxism that would promote the strength and future of the European Union.
The visit of Ursula underscores the need for collaboration between the public and private sectors in promoting cooperation for their political history and heritage. It also recognizes the need for political leaders to develop a niche in European heritage that is not imitable can edge competitively in the market. This is the way forward for developing a key and resilient regional integration.
Anderson’s, Sherwood. “Imagined communities.” Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory (2006): 49.
Y.Z. ” German Newspaper: Serbian and Croatian Politicians are urgently working to break up BiH.” Sarajevo Times, late ed., 7 October 2021. Online Source: https://www.sarajevotimes.com/german-newspaper-serbian-and-croatian-politicians-are-urgently-working-to-break-up-bih/
Y.Z. ” BiH Citizens have been banned from Traveling to Sweden.” Sarajevo Times, late ed., 3 October 202. Online Source: https://www.sarajevotimes.com/bih-citizens-have-been-banned-from-traveling-to-sweden/
Y.Z. ” Six BiH Companies mentioned in the Pandora Papers.” Sarajevo Times, late ed., 5 October 202. Online Source: https://www.sarajevotimes.com/six-bih-companies-mentioned-in-the-pandora-papers/
Y.Z. ” The President of the European Commission in Visit to BiH.” Sarajevo Times, late ed., 30, September 2021. Online Source: https://www.sarajevotimes.com/the-president-of-the-european-commission-in-visit-to-bih/