|Ashley and Tuten (2015).
|A sample of content from select brands on the top 100 brands
|Social media content
|Creative strategies/appeals, consumer engagement
|The research results revealed the importance of brands maintaining a social presence across various social media channels and regular updates and incentives for customers to participate in creating the brand story.
|Batra, Ahuvia, and Bagozzi (2012
|315 undergraduate students
|Consumer loyalty, word of mouth, and resistance to negative information
|The research revealed the importance of a scale for validating brand love, depending on the communication channel based on the importance of the concept to businesses.
|Beukeboom, Kerkhof, and de Vries (2015).
|10,000 Facebook followers
|Brand’s Facebook updates
|Brand evaluations and purchase intention
|The results revealed that when customers follow a brand’s Facebook updates, it influences brand evaluations positively.
|Brakus, Schmitt, and Zarantonello (2009).
|30 university student
|Brand experience (sensations, feelings, cognitions, and behavioural response)
|Consumer satisfaction and loyalty
|The authors revealed that brand experience has a direct effect on consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, companies should strive to improve the brand experience through social media.
|Breivik and Thorbjørnsen (2008).
|Two models of consumer–brand relationships
|Adequacy of the metaphoric transfer
|Empirical models of consumer–brand relationships
|The authors established that the modified relationship investment model provides an effective investigation of consumer–brand relationships that are dissimilar in terms of intensity.
|Social ad budgets
|Market success, customer loyalty, consumer decision-making
|The results revealed an increase in social ad budgets in 2013 to improve the company’s appeal to customers.
|Gensler, Völckner, Liu-Thompkins, and Wiertz (2013)
|Publications ins journals covering a period between 2006-2013.
|Social media environment
|Effective brand management, customer satisfaction
|The study revealed that marketers should pay attention to consumer-generated stories as part of their effective brand management efforts.
|Hollebeek, Glynn, and Brodie (2014).
|39 CBE items
|Consumer brand engagement, consumer “self-brand connection” and “brand usage intent.”
|The findings of the study showed that besides the role of consumer brand “involvement” the “consumer brand engagement,” consumer “self-brand connection” and “brand usage intent” are the main factors in the achievement of effective engagement of the consumer with the brand.
|Hudson, Huang, Roth, and Madden (2016).
|Three countries (France, United Kingdom, United States) w
|Consumer engagement through Social media
|higher consumer–brand relationships
|The authors established that customer engagement through social media plays an important role in the achievement of higher consumer-brand relationships.
|John, Loken Kim, and Monga (2006).
|90 patients and 75 nonpatients
|Brand association network
|Consumer mapping is critical in developing brand equity in health care settings.
|Research articles on brand equity
|The effectiveness of marketers in managing brand equity determines the level of customer satisfaction with the brand.
|Kim & Ko (2012)
|Fifteen graduate students
|Social media marketing
|Brand equity, customer equity, purchase intention
|The research revealed that effective social media marketing activities have a positive relationship with the achievement of customer equity.
|Kim, Han, and Park (2001).
|five companies in Korea
|Brand personality, consumers’ identification
|Brand asset management
|The findings revealed positive relationships between attractiveness, distinctiveness, and brand personality’s self-expressive value.
|Kuksov, Shachar & Wang (2013)
|One company’s case study
|Advertising, consumer communications
|Findings indicated that companies strengthen their brand identity through advertising and consumer communications.
|Brand-consumer relationship, prosocial interactions
|The author showed that consumer’s sense of feeling and connection with the brand determined the attitude of loyalty with the brand and is determined by the communication environment such as social media.
|Laroche, Habibi, and Richard (2013)
|Members of online communities
|Brand loyalty, connectedness
|Findings revealed that brand trust played a mediating role in changing the effect of improved relationship to brand loyalty in the brand community.
|Park, Kee, and Valenzuela (2009)
|1,715 college students
|Social media participation
|The gratification of social and political needs
|The findings revealed an association between the needs of users and civic and political participation through social media applications such as Facebook.
|Payne, Storbacka, Frow, and Knox (2009)
|Nine international companies
|Co-creation and service-dominant logic through social media
|Brand relationship experience
|Results of the case study reveal that social model can help in the design and management of the brand relationship when marketing innovative novel products.
|Ramaswamy and Ozcan (2016)
|Two illustrative examples of Starbucks and Apple
|Brand engagement platforms, brand experience domains,
|Brand value co-creation
|The research findings revealed that companies could enact brand value co-creation through brand engagement platforms. The positive relationship depends on factors such as brand experience domains, and brand capability ecosystems, including social media.
|Singh and Sonnenburg (2012)
|Brand performance, customer experience, brand loyalty.
|Three important findings were evident in the study: (i) improvisation process is more significant that output, (ii) brand management relates to keeping the brand performance alive, and (iii) the importance of understanding the audience and its role to achieve success in brand management.