For this review, be sure to:
Select three relevant and appropriate scholarly articles that address the topic you chose.
Present a thorough literature review of the three articles by summarizing, synthesizing, and evaluating the materials.
Incorporate citations into your body paragraphs; incorporate the essential and most relevant supporting evidence eloquently and appropriately.
Present your writing in a clear, organized manner.
Demonstrate understanding of the content presented in the articles.
Use proper APA format with proper citations. Review APA Citations Here
Your literature review should be 3–4 pages in length. Remember, you will need to use APA formatting in your literature review and include a title page and a reference page.
Rubic: Sources: Information is gathered from the required number of research-based sources. Sources are scholarly and relevant to the topic.
Writing is well- organized, and demonstrates logical sequencing and structure. There is a clear, comprehensive, and well-worded introduction and conclusion. The topic/problem statement/thesis is clearly stated at the beginning. Body paragraphs integrate citations and supporting material into the writing smoothly and purposefully.
A comprehensive analysis of the data (with in-text APA citations as needed) is presented. A complete, detailed and accurate review of the validity of the data/research methodology/findings/outcomes is presented. A clear and thorough assessment of the relevance of the sources to the topic is presented. The student’s unique contribution is clearly identified. Gaps in the data or analysis, or new problems that emerge from your review of the literature are clearly identified.The assignment consistently follows current APA format and is free from errors in formatting, citation, and references. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. All sources are cited and referenced correctly.
Chronic Pain: Treatment Options And Efficacy
Chronic pain is one of the leading triggers of hospital visits among adults in the United States and globally. Statistics show that this condition affects about one third of Americans, accounting for approximately 116 million people living with the problem (Christo, 2020). Unfortunately, a majority of the population suffering from chronic pain are either undertreated or lack access to proper treatment leading to deterioration in the quality of life. For example, Selby (2011) observes that untreated chronic pain contributes to lost potential, earning, ambition and relationships, not to mention the economic consequences of the condition. Despite the high prevalence and adversities associated with chronic pain, there remains scant literature on the most efficient and effective tools for managing the condition. Therefore, this literature review explores articles that address chronic pain in attempts to identify some of the treatment options that show the efficacy in managing the condition.
Selby (2011) describes chronic pain as pain that exceeds 12 weeks or beyond the expected healing time. In the author’s view, the condition can be a source of desperation among patients as many often have high expectations of finding a permanent solution for severe symptoms. Unfortunately, there are few treatment options for chronic pain which explains the deterioration of quality of life among patients. Selby (2011) categorizes the available treatment options into two: drug therapy and non-drug treatments. Drug therapy consists of drugs initially developed for management of cancer pain, but which are often extrapolated for use in management of non-cancer pain such as neuropathic pain. On the other hand, non-drug treatments consist of behavioral therapy and medical procedures such as exercises, physiotherapy, relaxation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture.
Like Selby, Christo also acknowledges the use of drugs as a first-line of treatment for chronic pain. In particular, the author focuses on one category of drugs, opioids, which have long been used in the disease management. The author notes that several studies have highlighted the efficacy of opioids for chronic pain such as low back pain and neuropathic pain like postherpetic neuralgia and governments also promote the drugs use in pain care in the hospital setting (Christo, 2020). However, the author also contends the safety of opioid use in chronic pain management, notably as a prescription drug for non-cancer pain condition.
Christo, P.J. (2020). Opioids may be appropriate for chronic pain. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, 48(2020), 241-248
Selby, M. (2011). Managing chronic pain. Practice Nurse, 41(2), 14-19.