Child and family development forum and responses

Last Edited By Patricia Berry on Jul 26, 2016 11:03 AM 

Children learn from interaction with others, and child-rearing techniques affect child development. The authoritative style is warm, consistent, and grants gradual autonomy. The authoritarian, often harsh, overbearing and grants no autonomy to the child. Permissive is warm, but makes no demands and is inconsistent. Uninvolved parenting lacks involvement or interest in the child at any stage of development. Depending upon the style of parenting, a child may or may not adjust well to outside influences. That being said I chose the Ecological Systems Theory or bioecological theory, (Bronfenbrenner) which centers on a child’s environment, interrelationships, and biology that shape a child’s development, and the environment affects the child and the child affects the environment (Berk, 2012, p. 27). The theory contains five systems, defined as:

  • The microsystem concerns relations between the child and the immediate environment;
  • The mesosystemconnections among immediate settings; 
  • The exosystem, social settings that affect but do not contain the child; 
  • The macrosystem, the values, laws, customs, and resources of the culture that affect activities and interactions at all inner layers; 
  • The chronosystem refers to the dynamic, ever-changing nature of the person’s environment (Berk, 2012, p. 27).

In my opinion, the two (most) important of the systems are the exosystem and mesosystem, the child is exposed to both formal groups (school, church, childcare center) and informal (the social systems of friends, neighbors and relatives) which also affects the parent and child relationship (Berk, 2012, p. 571). The macrosystem and chronosystem reflects challenges in today’s up-side-down world. The basic system or microsystem is the anchor of a child’s learning, attitude, and how they initially begin to form opinions, especially in respect to social tolerance. 

Advantage: Based upon the model of the Ecological Systems Theory, we assume that social tolerance and attitude, begins at home and therefore connects to outer-reaching elements. The model, if true, reflects (assumed positive experiences) going in line with what most school systems teach. If family members model positive social interaction and tolerance, the child is more likely to exhibit the same attitudes and understanding in public places. Children Live What They Learn (Canfield & Wells 1976).

The disadvantage of ‘teaching’ social tolerance to children under age 10 is in not recognizing that a child is/might be ill prepared to learn (at the pace desired by the school). If a child’s home environment is a cold or negative place, we see poor interaction that is (usually) mirrored outside the home. Within the model, I see it as an assumption that all children learn positivity at the same pace, thereby are prepared to learn tolerance accordingly.  A child, due to adverse conditions at home or neighborhood, may not be ready for changes, such as learning the school version of tolerance of others outside the immediate family (Huitt & Dawson, 2012). Having a negative influence at home and in the neighborhood can leave a child at a severe disadvantage, especially in learning to and becoming tolerant.  Lastly, as religion (being all but criminalized) in public schools, a child learning religious based tolerance at home faces a dilemma in school. Therefore, total and all-inclusive tolerance is incompatible across the model of the Ecological Systems Theory.


Berk, L. E.  (2012). Child Development, 9th Edition. Pearson Education.

Canfield, J. & Wells, H. C. (1976). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom: A handbook for teachers and patents. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Huitt, W. & Dawson, C. (2011, April). Social development: Why it is important and how to impact it. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from

Premium Custom Essays
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.