The client is a 26-year-old woman of Korean descent who presents to her first appointment following a 21-day hospitalization for onset of acute mania. She was diagnosed with bipolar I disorder.
Upon arrival in your office, she is quite “busy,” playing with things on your desk and shifting from side to side in her chair. She informs you that “they said I was bipolar, I don’t believe that, do you? I just like to talk, and dance, and sing. Did I tell you that I liked to cook?”
She weights 110 lbs. and is 5’ 5”
Patient reports “fantastic” mood. Reports that she sleeps about 5 hours/night to which she adds “I hate sleep, it’s no fun.”
You reviewed her hospital records and find that she has been medically worked up by a physician who reported her to be in overall good health. Lab studies were all within normal limits. You find that the patient had genetic testing in the hospital (specifically GeneSight testing) as none of the medications that they were treating her with seemed to work.
Genetic testing reveals that she is positive for CYP2D6*10 allele.
Patient confesses that she stopped taking her lithium (which was prescribed in the hospital) since she was discharged two weeks ago.
MENTAL STATUS EXAM
The patient is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed quite oddly- wearing what appears to be an evening gown to her appointment. Speech is rapid, pressured, tangential. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect broad. Patient denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no overt delusional or paranoid thought processes readily apparent. Judgment is grossly intact, but insight is clearly impaired. She is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation.
The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score is 22
§ Chen, R., Wang, H., Shi, J., Shen, K., & Hu, P. (2015). Cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype affects the pharmacokinetics of controlled-release paroxetine in healthy Chinese subjects: comparison of traditional phenotype and activity score systems. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(7), 835-841. doi:10.1007/s00228-015-1855-6
Decision Point One
Examine Case Study: An Asian American Woman With Bipolar Disorder. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
At each decision point stop to complete the following:
Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients.
Choice one: I choose to start Seroquel
Decision Point One
Begin Seroquel XR 100 mg orally at HS
RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE
Decision Point Two
I choose to discontinue Seroquel and start Geodon 40 mg orally BID. ADminister with 500 calorie meal
RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO
Decision Point Three
I now choose to continue same dose and reassess in 4 weeks
Decision Point Three
Guidance to Student
The PMHNP should provide counseling to the client about this side effect and encourage increased fluids and fiber in the diet to combat constipation. Hard candies or gum can be used to prevent dry mouth. This is another issue as the drug can cause dental problems as a result of dry mouth.
Changing to Geodon clearly helped with symptoms and arrested weight gain in this client. The PMHNP could wait 4 weeks and see if any changes in Young Mania Rating Scale are noted, or increasing to 60 mg orally BID in an attempt to hasten symptom improvement. Increasing dose may be associated with side effects.
Augmentation with Lithium may be appropriate if the goal of therapy is to discontinue antipsychotic therapy and treat with Lithium monotherapy. Lithium was problematic for this client but changing formulation to the extended release may overcome the difficulties she was experiencing with side effects. The PMHNP would need to educate client regarding side effects of medication and need to maintain compliance.
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