According to nativist theory, a component in the human genes exists, which enhances language development. The theory compares the automation of an imaginary language acquisition devises in human brains to the functioning of the hypothalamus. The learning theory states that language is learned through reinforcement and repetition. The principle suggest that languages emanate from a stimuli and stimuli reaction. The interactionist approach indicates that children learn the language out of their desire to communicate with those around them. The three theories suggest that although children have the same capacity for language development, other factors may affect their language development.
Several factors affect language development in children among them is the number of siblings in a family. Some scientists and doctors claim that children who originate from one-child home possess a firm grasp of language use and understanding. The claim is justified since no attention competition from caregivers and parents. They further assert that adults have a tendency to communicating with a single child more fluently and hence set a perfect example. Others arguethat a home with many siblings offers multiple opportunities to use language for a child. It results in the quick development of language. Focusing on both claims will offer an explanation on whether the position a sibling in a family affects language development.
Many parents may suggest that language development for young siblings maybe overshadowed since the older siblings may not allow them to express themselves since they do all the talking. However, the development of language between the first-born siblings maybe the same as that of their second-born siblings. The main difference in the language development is that the second-born may have a more advanced language than the first-born in their usage of personal pronouns, such as they, he, she, and them, among other words. The second-born tends to overhear the ensuing conversations between the older sibling and the parent or the caregiver exposing them to more pronouns in comparison to the older sibling. Studies further suggest that second-born children are exposed to varying linguistic environment than the first-born children (Prime, Plamondon, & Jenkins, 2017, p. 392). The kind of language overheard by the second-born in the conversation between the first-born and the parent or guardian is sophisticated and mature than the language that was exposed to the first-born.
The first-born’s primary source of language proficiency is their caregivers; therefore, their grammar and vocabulary development is more advanced than the second-born. On the other hand, the second-born tend to have more advanced conversational skills. The variance in experience of the new language sets the stage for their language development later in life (Prime, Plamondon, & Jenkins, 2017). Unlike the first-born children, the second-born children have the hard task of engaging in the real multi-party conversation that ensues between the caregivers, the parents, and the first-born. The second-born are thus motivated to utilize critical social skills for their inclusion in the family conversation. The existence of multi-party interaction tends to expose the second-born children to mature models of language.
The real difference in language skills between the first-born and the second-born children are mainly influenced by the varying language environments that both children encounter. For instance, the first-born children benefit from their exposure of one-to-one attention while the second-born children benefit from a vast diversity of conversations, which include overhearing conversations between first-born and the parents (Prime, Plamondon, & Jenkins, 2017, p. 402). Such exposure helps the younger child develop proficiency in language through the provision of sophisticated and varied conversation models.
Does television affect language development in children?
The main factor affecting the proficiency in language development between the first-born and the second-born child is their environment. Language development is of great importance in regards to general child development. Various aspects in the process of the development of language such as mental readiness, practicing opportunity, presence of a good role model, physical preparation, guidance, and motivation. Studies indicate that ninety percent of homestead in the developing countries have television as their primary mass media (Ritonga & Sofyani, 2018, p. 89). Its role in the child growing environment is critical. When children talk to adults and watch a television, they encounter new words. Notably, eighteen months old child develops television’s verbal response when exposed to good educational programs (Ritonga & Sofyani, 2018, p. 90). Although the response to television is a perfect indicator of a learning process, an adult’s interaction helps the child to improve language development. Therefore, excessive exposure to television may negatively affects the language development of a child.
Is birth order a risk factor for language outcomes?
Although a later birth might influence specified social conversational and language skills, it does not suggest a prospect of language delay. Parents claim that their first-born children acquired words early in comparison to their second-born, but it is important to note that the acquisition of vocabulary is normally washed out once the children learn 50 words. The main variance in language capacity for children from different birth order is the current language stimulation that they encounter. The first-born children are advantaged because they have direct interaction with their parents and guardians although the existing stimulation is less content sophisticated. The second-born children, on the other hand, benefit from the conversations they overhear between older siblings and parents and other multiparty communications giving them a more sophisticated language model (Prime, Plamondon, & Jenkins, 2017, p. 402). Hence, the variance in environments could have a significant impact on the language strength developed by children from different birth orders.
Although debate regarding the effect of birth order on language development in children is still evident, some strong pointers ascertain this claim. It is a fact that the first-born children attain the 50-word threshold earlier in comparison to the second-born children. The second-born children catch up with their older sibling washing out the variance in vocabulary that exists between the two sets of children. Both the first-born and the second-born possess the same language development, but the second-born children are advanced in pronouns usage. One-to-one attention between the first-born and the caregiver help in the development of their grammar and vocabulary while the second-born children possess good conversational skills which they attain from overhearing conversations from the elder sibling and the caregiver.
- What were the databases, if any, that you used to find each article or book;
- EBSCOhost and Proquest
- What was the search strategy you used (i.e., the search words you used) in each database to find the articles;
- What is the difference in language development between first-born and second-born children
- How does the environment after children’s language development
- How does television affect language development in children
- What are the risks of birth order to language outcomes
- Was each article that you cited an example of Primary or Secondary research?
- Secondary research
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., Putnick, D. L., & Suwalsky, J. T. (2014). Stability of core language skill from early childhood to adolescence: A latent variable approach. Child Development, 85(4), 1346-1356.
Prime, H., Plamondon, A., & Jenkins, J. M. (2017). Birth order and preschool children’s cooperative abilities: A within-family analysis. British Journal of Development Psychology, 35(3), 392-405.
Ritonga, D. H., & Sofyani, S. (2018). Language development and television exposure in children. Pediatric Oncall Journal, 15(4), 89-91.